Dentistry is a branch of Medical science which deals with the study, diagnosis, prevention, interception & treatment of dental problems, diseases, or disorders of the oral cavity which occurs in dentition, gums & associated skeletal and muscular structures and tissues in the maxillofacial areas which are jaw & face.
Dental treatments are done by a dental team which comprises of a Dentist, Periodontist, Orthodontist, Endodontist, Oral Surgeon, Prosthodontist, Pedodontist (Kids dentist), Community dentist, Oral pathologist, Oral radiologist & Cosmetic dentist according to the nature of dental problem & severity.
Dental problems mostly start with a very slight sign of problem or discomfort which can lead to severe issues when ignored or if full care or treatment is not taken of it. According to W.H.O. Researches, it shows that more than 90% of dental problems are the result of ignorance during primary signs in the initial stages of dental problems or associated issues with negligence in maintaining dental hygiene.
Majority of dental problems can be carried out or can be diagnosed at an early stage with regular dental check-ups performed by a Dentist. This is why Dentists encourage for dental check-ups & teeth cleaning in every 6 months for prevention & interception of dental problems & dental diseases. Importance of Dental health apart from a good smile is also important because studies have also shown that Dental problems can also associate with systemic health like increased risk of diabetes, heart diseases, respiratory problems, cancer etc. Hence maintaining a good oral hygiene and health is very important with regular dental check-ups at least twice a year.
Most common Dental problems are-
1. Toothache (Dental pain)
Dental pain can be from moderate to very severe which aggravates to ears. This can be due to multiple reasons like deep caries, cracked tooth, infection, etc.
2. Gum Disease (Periodontal problems)
Bleeding gums, swollen gums or inflamed gums are the most common gum diseases which can lead to several severe dental issues if ignored in early stage.
3. Bad Smell/Breath (Foul Smell)
Bad breath is the sign of periodontal problems or improper cleaning of teeth & tongue which can lead to pyorrhea or severe social embarrassment.
4. Yellowing of Teeth (Discoloration of teeth)
Yellowing of teeth can be due to result of habits (tobacco, smoking), eating habits, excessive caffeine intake or improper cleaning of teeth.
5. Infection (Pus Discharge or any pathology)
Infection in the oral cavity can be due to severe dental caries or trauma due to sharp edges of teeth or improper positioning of teeth which can lead to severe dental problems.
6. Dental Caries (Dental cavities)
Visible holes in tooth or any discoloration on tooth can be dental caries. This is one of the most common which is present in every age. It should be arrested in initial stage.
7. Loss of Teeth (Absence of single or many Teeth)
Absence or loss of single or multiple teeth can be due to trauma, age or severe dental caries. Dental implant and prosthetics is the solution.
8. Hole in the Tooth (Food lodgement)
Hole in the tooth can be due to food lodgement between teeth which can lead to dental cavities.
9. Crooked Teeth (Improper positioning of Teeth)
Improper positioning of teeth is a common problem which is present in alost every age which can lead to severe periodontal issues, can hamper aesthetics & functionality too. Orthodontic treatment is the treatment for crooked teeth.
10. Mouth Sores (Ulcers)
Mouth sores or ulcers are one of the most common problems which occurs in almost every age. This can occur due to excessive hot food, traumatic bite or spicy food.
11. Teeth Sensitivity (Sensitivity to Cold or Hot Food)
Sensitivity towards food or beverages temperature is a common dental problem which can be due to either cavity, worn tooth, gum disease, fractured teeth or exposed roots.
12. Stained Teeth (Red, Yellow or white stains on Teeth)
This can be calculus or plaque which accumulates on teeth, which is result of improper cleaning, tobacco, smoking, medication etc.
13. Chipped Tooth (Broken Tooth)
It is the most common type of dental injury. It can occur due to any trauma or while eating hard food. Severe injury may also require root canal treatment along with crown.
14. Impacted Teeth (When tooth fails to grow out from Gums)
An adult tooth that doesn`t come in properly is called impacted. It usually happens when a tooth is stuck against another tooth, bone or soft tissue. Most common impacted teeth are 3rd molars & canines.
15. Cracked Tooth (Cracks on tooth)
An Injury while playing or chewing can lead to cracked tooth. It can cause sensitivity or dental pain on the site.
16. Gap between Teeth (Spacing between Teeth)
Gap between teeth can be due to extra spacing available in dental arch, any pathology present or due to loss of tooth. Cosmetic dentistry as well as orthodontic treatment is the solution.
To prevent & to intercept these Dental problems & associated dental diseases everyone should maintain a good oral hygiene by brushing twice a day & should have a dental checkup done twice a year by a Dentist near you to take care of their Oral Health.
Always remember that Smile is 90% of your Selfie & is very important for good functionality of the Face. So don’t ignore or neglect the first signs of Dental problems and always have a dental checkup done at a dentist near you.
Written by - Dr.Mayank Sharma
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